Common Attack Types Cyber Range
The common attack cyber range will familiarize students with the basic theory and structure of the most popular web application attacks seen today. This range also comes with a vulnerable web application site where users can go beyond our range and work through dozens of different vulnerabilities ranging from the common to more obscure
Common Attack Types - Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)
Cross-site Scripting (XSS) is a client-side code injection attack. This vulnerability allows the attacker to insert malicious code into a legitimate website and control the victim's browser or account. An XSS vulnerability arises when web applications take data from users and dynamically include it in web pages without properly validating them. The strength of an XSS vulnerability lies in the fact that the malicious code executes in the context of the victim's session, allowing the attacker to bypass security restrictions. The damage caused by these types of attacks ranges from the disclosure of the user's session cookie to website modification or installation of Trojan horse programs. Cross-site scripting can be categorized into three groups: Reflected XSS attacks, Stored XSS attacks, and DOM-based XSS attacks.
Common Attack Types - File Inclusion & Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF)
In this lab, you will learn about File Inclusion and Cross-Site Request Forgery attacks. File Inclusion vulnerabilities are caused when unvalidated input parameters are passed to back-end programming functions that access server files. The back end represents the server side of the application, specifically its code and database. An attacker can change the file name in an HTTP request and include malicious scripts instead. Depending on the script, the attacker can: Execute code on the server, Perform XSS attacks, Cause a Denial of Service (DOS), Manipulate data, and Access sensitive information.
Cross-site request forgery (CSRF), also known as XSRF, Sea Surf, or Session Riding, is a vulnerability where unauthorized commands are submitted from a user that the web application trusts. The delivery mechanisms for CSRF attacks are similar to those for Reflected XSS. An attacker uses social engineering to trick the victim into sending a forged request to a server. The server does not block the request since it is made from an authenticated user.
Common Attack Types - HTML & SQL Injections
In this lab, you will walk through an example of both HTML and SQL injections. HTML injections are vulnerabilities created from poor coding techniques and failure to sanitize user input that allow attackers to inject malicious payloads into the website's HTML code and modify its content. Based on the vulnerability, an attacker can change a few code lines, add entire forms that can then be used to trick users into providing sensitive information or change the website's entire layout.SQL injection is a web security vulnerability that permits an adversary to inject malicious SQL statements in the queries that an application makes to its database. It allows an unauthorized entity to view data to which they should not have access, like other users' information.
Common Attack Types - Insecure Direct Object Reference (IDOR) & Directory Traversal
This lab walks a user through an example of Insecure Direct Object Referencing and Directory TraversalInsecure direct object reference (IDOR) is a type of access control vulnerability that occurs when an application exposes a direct reference to an internal object. Finding an IDOR allows attackers to enumerate and extract other information. Directory traversal (also known as file path traversal) is a web security vulnerability that allows an attacker to access restricted directories on the server. The directories can contain anything from application code and credentials for back-end systems to sensitive operating system files. In case read and write permissions are not correctly set, attackers can modify the files and ultimately take full control of the server.
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