Week 1: Fundamentals Review and intro to Pentest+ Course

3 hours,


Security+ - Web Vulnerabilities

Lab - 00:30:00

Because of the need to be public-facing and the information they provide, websites and web servers are a common target of attacks. The path to exploiting these attacks is most commonly created by logical errors in development or using vulnerable software to aid in building up the website. What adds to the pool of possible weak points is the need to integrate several technologies to create an interactive and responsive user experience, usage of legacy systems and failure to keep up with security patches. All these factors amount to a vast number of threats, all specific to different versions and programming languages.
Security+ - Secure and Insecure Protocols

Lab - 00:30:00

Security by design is an approach to software and hardware development that aims to construct systems free of vulnerabilities by implementing best practices and safeguards. However, it is relatively new as a notion, and prior to it, the aim of software developers was more oriented in functionality than security. The same principle can be seen in protocols such as HTTP, FTP, or POP. Because they apply no data encryption, these protocols are often referred to as clear-text protocols. Anyone who is intercepting the traffic between two entities that communicate using clear-text protocols can see the data flowing through the network in plain text. These protocols gave rise to attacks such as Man-in-the-middle (a malicious actor impersonating legitimate users) and sensitive data exposure. To cover the security holes of clear-text protocols, versions that applied encryption to data were developed.
PenTest+ - Applied Nmap

Lab - 00:30:00

A vast number of tools were developed to aid pentesters in identifying and exploiting vulnerabilities ranging from reconnaissance to scanning and persistence. Knowing which tool to use depends on the services running on the target and the vulnerabilities identified. One way to get this information is by using Nmap, a network mapper that identifies active hosts, open ports, software versions, and known vulnerabilities associated with the software.This lab uses Nmap scans and results to provide practical examples on identifying the right tools to use based on the services running on the target machine. The categories covered include:● Scanners● Credential testing tools● OSINT● Web proxies● Social engineering tools● Remote access tools● Networking tools● Mobile tools● MISC
PenTest+ - Metasploit Framework

Lab - 00:30:00

The Metasploit framework is a powerful tool that ethical hackers can use to investigate systematic vulnerabilities on networks and servers. Because it’s an open-source framework, it can be easily customized and used with most operating systems. This framework has become the go-to exploit development and mitigation tool. Before Metasploit, pen testers had to manually perform all explorations and write their code to exploit the vulnerability.
PenTest+ - Nmap and Hping

Lab - 00:30:00

Reconnaissance is the most crucial phase of a penetrations test. If conducted properly, it allows pen testers to limit the scope of potential attack vectors and map the target's network. Information like the operating system installed on the target host, open ports, and running services helps pentesters identify vulnerabilities, find ways to exploit them, and advise the client on remediating the security holes. Several tools can help obtain this information, with Nmap and hping being some of the best known, reliable, and full-fledged utilities.This lab covers the most commonly used options and flags of Nmap and hping, describing in detail their functionality and usage. The topics covered are:● Nmap○ Port ranges○ Target specification○ Output formats○ Default scripts○ Scan types● Hping○ TCP packet crafting○ UDP packet crafting
PenTest+ - Vulnerability Scans

Lab - 00:30:00

A vulnerability scanner is a computer program that identifies systems connected to a network and probes them to find security weaknesses. The systems can be servers, desktops, laptops, virtual machines, containers, firewalls, switches, and printers. Vulnerability scanners probe these devices for known vulnerabilities and can help pinpoint potential security misconfigurations in the network. Because testing for known vulnerabilities is a repetitive and time-consuming process, these tools come in handy for pentesters, allowing them to focus on more target-specific tasks.Using different vulnerability scanners, this lab provides practical examples and explanations on the following subjects:● Vulnerability scanning● Vulnerability management and prioritization● Critical vulnerability identification● Local privilege escalation tools

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